Did you know that your adrenal glands can be the source of abundant health or the source of abundant health challenges? The choice is yours!
I want you to make an intelligent choice, but first you must acquire some knowledge. Let’s start with a primer on the adrenal glands.
The adrenal glands are small, triangular shaped glands that sit atop your kidneys. They regulate our body’s response to stress in a number of ways.
There are two main sections of the adrenal glands: the outer adrenal cortex and the inner adrenal medulla.
The adrenal cortex is further divided into three layers.
- Zona glomerulosa: the site of mineralcorticoid production (i.e. aldosterone), which helps to regulate sodium/potassium balance in the body.
- Zona fasciculate: the site of glucocorticoid production (i.e. cortisol), which helps regulate blood sugar balance.
- Zona reticularis: the site of sex hormone production (i.e. DHEA, androstenedione).
A doctor I spoke with told me that in medical school, one way they learned to remember these three layers is: “Salt, sugar, sex.” Not important, but catchy.
Connected Directly to the Brain
The adrenal glands are unique in that part of them, the inner adrenal medulla, has a direct connection to the brain. In virtually all of the other hormone-producing glands in the body, the message to secrete a hormone is transmitted via a chemical messenger traveling through the blood stream.
Not so with the adrenal medulla. There is a nerve that goes directly from the brain to the adrenal glands. This is a good thing because when you are in an acute stress situation, you want your body to respond quickly.
What happens when your adrenal glands go awry?
For simplicity’s sake, let’s break down adrenal function into two categories:
Overactive adrenal glands usually produce too much cortisol and possibly other adrenal hormones (i.e. epinephrine, aldosterone). Since cortisol plays a role in elevating blood sugar, this is often accompanied by an increased blood sugar level. Over time, this might lead to conditions like insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome.
Underactive adrenal glands, on the other hand, produce inadequate amounts of hormones, especially cortisol, to maintain homeostasis in the body.
A common clinical problem with underactive adrenal glands is hypoglycemic symptoms due to fluctuations in blood sugar. Normal, healthy bodies release cortisol to help liberate glucose, which maintains brain, organ and cell functions when blood sugar levels decline between meals, or overnight during sleep.
When cortisol is unavailable, glucose levels get too low. The adrenal glands release epinephrine (a.k.a. adrenaline) as a back-up plan. This causes the light-headedness, shakiness, and irritability that people with low blood sugar experience, and is why people with low blood sugar commonly wake up during the night.
When Adrenal Glands Malfunction
What can cause dysfunctional adrenal glands? Unfortunately, a lot of things:
- mental/emotional stress
- food sensitivities
- blood sugar imbalances
- infections (i.e. parasitic, bacterial)
- excessive exercise
- anything that is a perceived stress on the body
We know that under the influence of certain biochemical processes, the adrenal glands can go straight into a state of overactivity or underactivity.
For instance, through a series of biochemical processes, a viral infection can throw the adrenal glands into a state of adrenal underactivity. On the other hand, food sensitivities seem to encourage the body’s physiology to promote a state of adrenal hyperactivity.
How Are You Adrenals Doing?
Want to test your adrenal gland function? Try this at home!
Here’s one relatively easy test to do if you have a blood pressure monitor. It’s called the orthostatic hypotension test. After lying down for approximately five minutes, take your blood pressure and make note of the systolic pressure (the top number). Then stand up and take your blood pressure again.
If your systolic pressure remained the same or if it decreased, there is a chance you do not have optimal adrenal medulla function, or epinephrine secretion. When we stand, epinephrine is normally secreted to increase our blood pressure to help prevent gravity from pulling blood away from our brain. If your blood pressure drops, it might mean that epinephrine isn’t there to do its job.
Here’s another test you can do at home.
When in the dark, your pupil should be dilated (open). When you shine a light it should constrict. The duration of constriction can indicate adrenal function, though there are other causes for a positive finding on this test. Wait 30 seconds in the dark before repeating with the other eye.
Healthy adrenal function would have your pupil constricting for at least 20 seconds.
There are a few ways of assessing adrenal gland function using laboratory testing. By far the most popular is the adrenal salivary test. It takes four salivary samples throughout the day and uses them to assess levels of salivary cortisol and DHEA. Along with patient history, symptomatology, and clinical observation, the adrenal salivary test is one of the most effective ways of assessing adrenal gland function and determining a course of treatment.
As an aside, particularly for women who are considering using hormone replacement treatments, make sure these three things are functioning properly:
- adrenal gland function
- blood sugar balance; and
- gastrointestinal function.
Of course, now you want to know how to manage the adrenal glands and keep them healthy.
Help Your Adrenal Glands Recover
If you’re concerned about your adrenal glands, the first thing you must do is remove or address the source of stress. This may mean removing food sensitivities, addressing an infection, resolving mental/emotional stress, or whatever it may be that is negatively impacting adrenal gland physiology.
Once you address the source of stress, these are some therapeutic options depending on the findings of the adrenal salivary test:
- Adaptogenic herbs: There are a number of botanicals called “adaptogens” because of their amazing ability to help the body respond to stress. They can help dampen the stress response in overactive adrenal glands, and increase the response in underactive adrenal glands.
- Licorice root: This herb is used primarily in the case of underactive adrenal glands and can help with increasing circulating cortisol levels until the adrenal glands restore function. Due to its effects on aldosterone, it is not recommended for people with high blood pressure, so check with your health care provider about this.
- Phosphytidylserine (PS): This compound is best known for its ability to lower cortisol. But its effects are understated. PS should be used in both overactive adrenal glands and underactive adrenal glands because of its profound effects on the hypothalamus, which is a key regulator in the feedback loop between the pituitary and adrenal glands. Though 600-800 mg taken orally seems to be effective, some people like using a topical application.
- Hormones: There are two hormones that are sometimes indicated when rehabilitating the adrenal glands: pregnenolone and DHEA. However, please don’t use them without the supervision of a qualified health professional.
To summarize, the adrenal glands and their hormones have major physiological impacts on our body, affecting bone metabolism, hormonal balance, gastrointestinal function, thyroid function, brain health, blood sugar balance, inflammation, and immune system function.
Today, supporting one’s adrenal glands is far more complicated than it used to be in the past. It requires proper testing, looking at many different physiological systems in the body, and proper nutritional support to help our body deal with stress.
The healthier you function internally, the healthier your life will be in general, and your adrenal health plays a huge role.